Appropriate Accommodations and Modifications of Regular-Classroom Program -- Grades K-3

Pacing:
___Allow more time (__50% more; __100% more) for completion of tasks
___Allow frequent breaks; vary activities often (every 15-30 minutes)
___Eliminate or limit timed tasks to skills and knowledge the student has mastered

Environment:
___Use preferential seating (e.g., in the front, close to the teacher, or close to peer-tutor)
___Seat child near natural light; reduce exposure to fluorescent lighting
___Use frequent positive reinforcement, rewarding effort and persistence (e.g., "Good job," a smile, a pat on the back, a smiley face on a paper, etc.)
___Use colored overlays of child?s choice, if helpful, to cut-down on glare (often useful are smoky, blue-gray, pink, yellow, red)
___Give child a number-line and alphabet-strip on his/her desk to use as a reference to correctly form letters and numbers
___Have child keep a list of key words (e.g., bed, pet, quick, good), which contain letters s/he reverses, to use as a reference when writing
___Place a piece of green tape on the left edge of child's desk to remind him/her to begin work at the left
___Allow use of a "word window" (a card with a hole which has been cut-out to approximate the size of the words in the text), when reading

Presentation of Subject Matter:
___Use multisensory teaching (see, say, write in the air, trace with pencil)
___Use manipulatives to make learning more concrete
___Provide visual cues (e.g., charts, pictures, graphs)
___Use xerox copies, rather than dittos; many children have difficulty reading blue/purple print
___Avoid using fluorescent or glossy paper
___Provide adequate space to separate lines of text
___Use papers of different colors for different worksheets and/or handouts
___Simplify directions, making them more step-by-step in format
___Number sentences in directions
___Provide a box or line to the left of each direction or step, for check-off as completed
___Highlight or underline the verbs in directions (e.g., Add numbers; Circle the correct answer)
___Provide pictures or illustrations/diagrams of individual steps in the activity
___Teach new vocabulary words at the beginning of the activity
___Explain why the activity is being done; relating the activity to things that are done in the world outside the classroom (so the child understands the value of the learning, and does not consider it ?busy work?)

Assignments:
___Modify spelling assignments: (a) use regular class list to develop meaning; (b) use words from child's structured, synthetic phonics reading program to promote learning to spell the same patterns s/he is learning to read
___Use cooperative learning where a peer or parent reads text selections or math story problems to the child and child answers questions
___Reduce paper and pencil tasks by 50%
___Read directions and/or worksheets to child; have child paraphrase to check comprehension
___Use taped stories where child follows along with the book (for voice-print match; learning of high-frequency words)
___Use taped textbooks and taped assignments, as needed
___Avoid having child read and/or spell aloud in front of the class unless child volunteers
___Cue child, when necessary
___Reduce length and/or modify method of completing assignments, including homework (fewer questions or problems; book report on tape)
___Provide graph paper (large block) for math work
___Mark place on page where child is to start assignment, using tape/magic-marker/highlighter
___Permit child to choose cursive or manuscript writing
___Point out (highlight or circle) reversals and transpositions for correction (but do not count as wrong)
___Provide copies of transparencies and assignments presented on blackboard; do not require the child to copy
___Require student to "proofread" aloud (or in a whisper) all written work
___Give "high motivation" writing assignments (e.g., letter to a friend; list of things s/he would need for camping, etc.)

Testing Adaptations:
___Use oral testing
___Use reduced reading-level tests
___Lengthen time for completion
___Replace tests with oral reports and/or projects
___Provide practice tests when possible
___Use spelling words that test knowledge of specific features (e.g., CVC; CVCe) rather than subject matter or typical vocabulary
___Have child spell orally, and accept as correct if it is correct, any misspelled written words before assigning a grade

Grading:
___Give credit for projects
___Give credit for class participation
___Reduce weight of written tests
___Provide more multiple-choice tests
___Grade for content, not spelling