In general, my interests focus on the toxicological effects of either biotic and abiotic stressors at multiple levels of biological organization. Recent projects include the effects of nano-sized metals on bacterial survival and zebrafish development. This project focuses on the morphological and genetic level impact these materials illicit on different organisms. Another major project is looking at the short-term and long-term effects of coal ash on freshwater mussels. This combination field-lab study focuses on the biochemical and molecular level responses of exposed animals and attempts to correlate their responses to the overall health of an individual and population.