January-February 2021 Communicator
Vol. 29, No. 1 [pdf version]
Digital Measures help with
tenure, promotion process
MTSU faculty and department administrators now have access to an online file-sharing
system that helps compile, update, and distribute documents needed for the promotion or tenure process.
The Digital Measures program is a web-based database organized around a faculty member’s CV, or curriculum vitae. Users only have to enter their educational background, academic records, research, and other activities, and keep them updated, for this information to be easily accessible through a workflow that goes to department directors, chairs, the provost, and even the president.
This simplifies and streamlines the dissemination of records during annual reviews, promotions and especially the tenure process.
“Digital Measures is able to tie a single profile to multiple colleges, reducing the repetitive reporting requirements for faculty with joint appointments. It is customizable to efficiently meet the reporting needs of faculty and administrators,” according to the Digital Measures website.
The first step in optimizing the customizability, minimizing repetitive entries, and implementing the concept of “single truth” of data was to create an interface between Banner and Digital Measures (DM).
That has been the primary focus of Josh Webb, who joined ITD in October 2018 as a senior systems analyst.
“I sent all the data to them from Banner to get things started. And we have daily data feeds, sending different files for pages,” Webb said, adding that DM has simplified and improved the process of promotion and tenure.
“I don’t think anyone uses the paper method any more,” Webb said. “Before, they were basically putting together a giant binder with all this information, every time. This way it is all here and they can update it as needed. Nothing gets lost or has to be printed out . . . It’s a good place just to keep all your information.”
The workflow process allows users to run reports on their own data and allows several designated individuals to run reports for others ranging from department staff, to director, to chair, provost, or president. Reports are built in real-time using all data entered as of that instant.
Joey Gray, a professor in the Department of Health and Human Performance who helps administer DM, said it began to be utilized in 2018 and by last fall all faculty and staff on campus were enjoying the benefits.
“Everyone is required to use DM for annual reviews. Most are required for tenure and promotion, but can ask for an exception if they have been at MTSU for a long time,” said Gray.
Gray said the benefits include:
- Reviews more quickly and efficiently handled
- Faculty seeing the results almost immediately at each step and being able to review them online.
- Documents not getting “lost”
- Everything in the process being stored in one place
- No more binders needed for compiling paperwork
“It would take months organizing and creating these huge binders of supporting evidence.
All is uploaded now electronically,” she said.
Gray and Webb said DM has proven extremely valuable in the current COVID-19 environment, with faculty and staff working mostly off campus and unable to physically process and deliver information needed for the promotion process. And eliminating the handling of physical paperwork is a benefit, they said.
“It automates the workflow process—it doesn’t have to be manually handed to someone,” Webb said. “It’s not killing tons of trees. It just makes it easier for the faculty member to keep up with all their data, it’s just all right here and you just update whatever needs to be updated. So it makes it so much easier for tenure and promotions. It’s all self-contained, you don’t have to try to find and print out your publications. It just makes everything simple.”
Digital Measures profiles are activated based on HR data found in Banner, but they
also can be customized with input from the user.
To create a Digital Measures account, use your FSA user name and password to login to Digital Measures at https://www.mtsu.edu/dm/. Scheduled classes and workloads will be automatically imported quarterly. The names of each screen will guide users into various sections that can be reviewed and completed as desired. Users can manually add other relevant documents including published work, research, awards and honors, and extracurricular activities.
There is a place to upload additional supporting documents that do not fit into a preset activity screen, such as student comments and emails, Student Evaluations, teaching/research statements, sample student assignments, etc.).
Following are some tips for how to submit the documents:
▶ Organize data/supporting information by year (merge all files into one PDF)
▶ Use a file name that is descriptive (ex: Student Comments 18-19.pdf)
▶ To link to a file that is larger that 50MB (i.e., audio or video files) that is accessible on the web or that you have stored in Kaltura, you can create an HTML page or Microsoft Word document that contains a link to the file (web) or the embed code (Kaltura). You can then upload the HTML file or Word document to Digital Measures.
Digital Measures allows creation of a custom CV by using the Create New Report function in the Run Reports module. For more information, refer to the Creating Custom CVs section of the Digital Measures user guide: digitalmeasures.com/activity-insight/docs/reporting.html.
Faculty users do not have to complete all sections, because not every screen or field is relevant to every faculty member. You should only enter an item once. If you have specific questions about what to include where, consult with your college and/or department chair.
Digital Measures is able to migrate data for a user who has come from another university using Digital Measures.
Gray credited Webb for his work setting up the system.
“Josh had to do a great deal of coding to ensure our data was pulled from Banner into the system. And he was invaluable when I had questions regarding system issues or troubleshooting! He worked very hard and efficiently."
From punch cards to PCs:
John Patterson retires after serving 48 years in IT
John Patterson’s career tracked with the development of digital technology and the
discovery of new uses for it in higher education.
Patterson retired from MTSU on Jan. 7, nearly 54 years after he arrived at the University to study one of the earliest forms of digital technology—punch cards.
A native of Hendersonville, Patterson originally attended MTSU in 1967; then he transferred to a trade school, then back to MTSU. But in early 1968 he enlisted and would serve a year in Vietnam before he was honorably discharged in 1971 as a specialist fifth class. Returning to MTSU, he finished his studies and graduated in 1972 with a major in Sociology.
Patterson, who served 20 years in ITD’s Administrative Information System Services, (AISS) most recently as assistant director.
When I came to MTSU, I was going to get my degree in Computer Science, but you had to have like five semesters of calculus, and to me that was Greek. . . . I just couldn't get it. So I changed my major to Sociology. I got a minor in data processing—they don't call it that now. We did our programming on punch cards with a key punch machine.
From there, he embarked on several career stops in the public and private sectors
mostly in Tennessee, working with early computer products such as IBM, Honeywell,
and Texas Instruments and using primarily COBOL.
“In 1973 I went to work for the Tennessee Department of Agriculture in downtown Nashville,” he said. “I was a programmer for the office. We had desktop terminals with keyboards . . . and it was COBOL, of course, back then. I think we used punch cards and ran them through the machine to print out reports.”
From 1985 to 2000, he worked for the Tennessee Board of Regents in Nashville as a systems analyst responsible for a student information system for 20 colleges and universities in tennessee on a Digital VAX/VMS system.
“At that time, all the public universities were using their own software, probably developed in-house. . . . They started looking for a system that all universities could use, so all the reporting sent in from the colleges would all be the same," he said. "TBR needed all data sent in to be the same, and at the time it was not.”
Eventually the solution was the Banner system still utilized by state universities including MTSU, which now has its own Board of Trustees.
Patterson was hired by MTSU in 2000 as assistant manager for the Administrative Applications Group in what was then known as the Office of Information Technology.
In his two decades at MTSU, he worked with administrative IT projects for students, faculty, and staff, serving as ITD AISS director from 2005 to 2015. Projects spanned from locally developed systems to Banner upgrades for Ellucian or TBR. Starting in 2015 he became applications administrator for Footprints, ITD’s electronic work order system.
“Some departments contacted us and, instead of buying something outside of ITD, would ask me 'can we use Footprints?' So I would set up Footprints for different departments,” he said.
Another project he is proud of is helping the College of Graduate Studies with a new system for tracking and organizing student correspondence. The goal was to prevent duplicated effort and loss of information during the process by recording communications and actions involving prospective students in one central digital workspace. As applicants interact with CGS staff, all relevant faculty and staff are updated on the progress.
I set that up for them so a student can send an email to an address and it automatically created a ticket in Footprints,” he said. “That helped the whole office with communication. One person could look and see what someone else did for a particular student.
Similar systems have been set up for other departments including Criminal Justice
Administration and University College. He also has helped improve Banner security.
Patterson said the transformation of technology from those early days of punch cards and COBOL has been “amazing.” The biggest challenge has been picking the right tech and transitioning to it, he said.
What he will miss most, however, is not the technology but the personal interactions with colleagues and clients, something that had already begun to diminish with working at home due to coronavirus restrictions.
I’ll miss the people more than the work—talking to folks about things, chatting about family,
His own family is a big part of his retirement plans. Patterson has made 33 weekend trips with his grandchildren to Tennessee State Parks over the last four years.
"John has been working for higher education in Tennessee for 36 years. If you add in the other places John has worked, he has been working for a total of 48 years. And of course he has served our country in the military too . . . his retirement is well-deserved," said Lisa Rogers, senior associate vice president for Information Technology.
Batson enjoying retirement despite COVID challenges
Joann Batson said retiring in the middle of the COVID crisis last summer has made things a little more challenging, but in some ways it helped with her transition from work.
I really didn’t know if I could stay home. But COVID helped me get used to staying home and get used to being alone. I am enjoying retirement,” she said. “I have gotten to go bowling once a week with my two sons and grandson.
Batson retired June 30, after working at the University since January 2001. She grew
up in Nashville and graduated from St. Bernard Academy, then an all-girl Catholic
school. She came to Murfreesboro to attend MTSU in 1976, earning a bachelor’s degree
in Business Administration. She got married after graduation and stayed in Murfreesboro
to begin her career.
“When I graduated from MTSU the job market was bad. A friend got me on as a bank teller for Third National Bank, now Suntrust,” she said. “I only worked there for a couple of months. I then got a job with the state of Tennessee. I commuted for 18 years from Murfreesboro to Nashville. I worked in Human Services, Health Department, Corrections, TennCare Partners, and Commerce and Insurance before coming to MTSU.”
Batson’s interest in IT began at the Health Department when a supervisor offered to teach her SAS, or Statistical Analysis System, a method of accessing, managing, analyzing, and reporting on data used in decision-making. In her work for ITD she utilized Argos, an enterprise reporting solution that facilitates timely and informed data-driven decision-making.
“Each time we changed systems reports would have to be converted. There were FOCUS programs that had to be converted to Access. Then Access converted to Argos,” she said. “I created reports for the College of Education for TK20 and other reports that they submit for federal and state requirements.”
Batson was recently involved in converting the electronic admission process to Argos.
When she lost her husband, Gary, in September 2017, she learned just how great her ITD colleagues are.
My best memories are how great my co-workers have been to me,” she said. “My co-workers helped me through some of my darkest times. I am forever grateful. I will miss my co-workers. But I will also miss my users in the colleges that I worked with trying to create reports to make their jobs easier.
Batson said she is hopeful that things will return to normal soon, allowing for some
more retirement fun.
“I plan to travel with some crazy girlfriends I have when COVID gets under control,” Batson said. “Hopefully, I’ll get to go to some concerts that I have tickets to that were bought before COVID. I am in the process of buying a vacation home in Panama Beach, Florida.
“Also my late husband bought a lot of ‘stuff’ and I am slowly trying to go through his treasures. I swear the man didn’t buy one of anything; he bought two or three.”
Taylor's interests are tech, philosophy, and muscle cars
With a degree in Philosophy, Tim Taylor takes a philosophical view when explaining
why he loves tinkering with computers and muscle cars.
Taylor came to MTSU in April 2017 as a database administrator for ITD. The native of Selmer, Tennessee, is a graduate of the University of Tennessee–Martin, where he earned bachelor’s degrees in Computer Science, Philosophy, and University Studies. But he said his interest in tech tinkering goes way back.
I have always had an interest in technology. Very early on I had a habit of taking things apart, much to my mother’s dismay,” Taylor said. “She finally gave up saying anything about it when she realized I could put them back together as well. That just transitioned in computers. I grew up on a farm, but computers always made sense to me. I would spend hours typing in basic programming just to see what happened.
When he got his first Windows computer, he began “tinkering with files to see what
“I can’t count the number of times I had to reload Windows after I tinkered with the wrong thing. The biggest turning point towards IT was my first summer after college when I wasn’t sure if I wanted to continue,” he said.
Taylor recounted how a friend’s father hired him to work at a scrapyard. It offered decent pay, but at the end of that summer of hard work, his friend joked that “I guess college doesn’t look that bad, does it?”
“From that day on I never questioned my path again,” Taylor said.
He began pursuing a Computer Science degree, but when deciding on a minor he picked Philosophy because it was a topic that fascinated him.
“I then finished my CS degree not long after. I then continued and finished the work towards my Philosophy degree just because I had an interest and enjoyed the subject,” he said.
Taylor worked at UTM as a repair services senior technician and as an IT administrator.
“I started a student worker job at UTM for almost a year before a full-time position opened up in repair that I was offered. That transitioned to the senior position, which put me overseeing the other techs' daily progress and in charge managing the student workers that did the configuration and installation, etc. on campus,” he said. A few years later an assistant database administrator position opened up, and he transitioned into that role, overseeing installation and implementation of a portal project grant that unified all the major systems on campus.
Other career highlights include working under a Department of Defense contract as a project lead in systems administration and for IMC Companies, also in systems administration.
“A number of years later after getting married, I accepted a position with a company that worked DoD contracts. I was the project manager for a Navy project in Millington (Tennessee) for almost eight years,” he said. “When I had children, I decided to get out of contracting, and I accepted a senior DBA position with a logistics company in Memphis for almost two years before we decided Memphis wasn’t where we needed to be. A friend of mine that recently accepted a position on campus mentioned a DBA position at MTSU. I came to visit and the rest is history.”
In his ITD role, Taylor is responsible for the care, maintenance, and improvements of the database systems used on campus.
“My main projects have been unifying database systems, further setting standards for both systems and procedures and effective management of preemptive issue resolution. I think the largest project I was proud of was moving the Banner databases to being fully encrypted without any issues,” Taylor said.
“A challenge of working in systems in IT ... is that if you are doing your job well, no one hears from you. No one ever calls about a properly running or managed system—don’t bother the person behind the curtain. For that reason system people tend to get forgotten unless there is a problem. So the rewards are probably just the fact that things are stable and people recognize that fact here.
“With a campus as large as MTSU that runs 24/7, it is hard to find outage windows that don’t interrupt business. Thankfully, the departments on campus are flexible when it comes to scheduling.”
Taylor’s outside interests include photography, movies, gaming, and “tech-related stuff.”
My primary hobby, however, is car-related, primarily Mustangs but I do have a Lightning and a Packard. What attracts me to cars, specifically classic cars, is that thousands of mechanical occurrences have to happen in harmony to function as a whole. You can take it apart, see it, and hold it in your hands, then turn around assemble these parts to see them perform their function.
“It is a polar opposite from IT work, so it serves as a nice break. I am currently
in the never-ending process of building a 1969 Mustang.”
He and his wife, Wendy, have twins—Dexter and Sydney.
“I have 6-year-old twins (boy/girl) and two older step-daughters,” he said. “Prior to the pandemic, we liked to travel—we went to the Aquarium quite often in Chattanooga since the kids are fascinated by it, hike to waterfalls to play in, explore outside in general, and I drag them to car-related events when possible.”
ITD Staff News
MTSU alumnus Benton joins division staff as IT specialist
Chris Benton joined the division in September as an information technology specialist.
A native of Nashville, Benton lives in Pelham. He earned a bachelor’s degree in Mass Communications from MTSU.
“After college, I was working in auto manufacturing, until I decided to open my own video production company that I ran for six years,” he said.
“I closed that business after getting an opportunity to work for an insurance marketing company creating training videos and commercials for contracted agents, as well as producing an internet
TV show for consumers called ‘Checks and Balances TV.’”
During that time he began to help with IT issues in the office, and “that is where I started down the path of information technology.”
“I have worked in IT now for eight years for a few different organizations before coming to MTSU,” Benton said.
In his ITD role, he is responsible for supporting the College of Education and the College of Behavioral and Health Sciences.
"I like the people I work with and being able to help others and solve problems,” he said.
“The biggest challenge has been dealing with the COVID situation since a lot of people are not on campus. It makes some aspects of my job more difficult. I do like the challenge it presents in having to figure out creative
ways to do my job.”
He and his wife, Megan, have been married 25 years and have twin sons attending Tennessee Tech University.
“I am currently converting an old 1999 Blue Bird school bus into an RV. The project is 90% finished,” he said.
“I am excited to have the opportunity to work for my alma mater and see how much the University has grown since I graduated in 1996.”
Dill uses sound production experience in A/V tech role
Aaron Michael Dill joined the division in August as an audiovisual classroom technician.
Dill, of Kingsport, earned a bachelor’s degree in Audio Production from MTSU's Department of Recording Industry.He previously worked at the University in Production Services, starting in that department in 2015 and being promoted to assistant director in 2018.
“I support and maintain the classroom equipment. I also get to use my audio background to optimize sound systems in the classrooms,” he said.
“I enjoy problem-solving and getting the opportunity to improve the technology experience for our students and faculty.”
He and his wife, Rachael, have a daughter, Ellie. In his spare time, Dill enjoys playing piano and disc golf.
Classroom A/V tech Moore enjoys singing in spare time
Jonathan Moore started with ITD in September 2020 as a classroom audiovisual technician.
A native of Maryville, Moore earned an associate degree from Pellissippi State Community College in Knoxville. He is working on an online bachelor’s degree in IT.
Moore worked as an IT administrative assistant for Maryville City Schools right out of high school, then as an IT assistant for a pediatric physician’s office in Knoxville. He also has worked as an office administrator/online content curator for a real estate office.
At MTSU, he works on system design, servicing, and system reprogramming of new and existing A/V systems.
"My job is challenging in that we have over 400 non-identical spaces of educational technology that have to be supported, serviced, and upgraded and I get to take part in the process of making these spaces more user-friendly, easier to service and support, and upgrading these spaces for the future,” he said.
“I go hiking most weekends and have a strong attraction to water. I love waterfalls, large rivers and lakes,” he said, adding that he enjoys dining out with friends. He also sings country, folk, and choral music as a tenor.
“I love live events and have a strong affinity for live lighting, staging, and sound,” he said.
Best practices for ensuring accessibility in online courses
Since the "Zombie Apocalypse" of 2020 (aka the coronavirus pandemic), faculty and
students have been challenged with teaching and learning in both fully online and
These challenges have prompted both students and teachers to excel. Many instructors are providing clearer, more deliberate instructions and targeted support. They are, by necessity, becoming more flexible with timelines, goals, and assessments. Students are becoming more independent learners and thinkers, and we’ve all been forced to reassess previous ideas about teaching and learning.
However, this shift to virtual education has not been without its challenges. Some schools have realized that their technology was not up to date. Some instructors were less than confident about their ability to teach online; however, through all of this, students, instructors, and tech support staff alike have emerged with a newfound focus and offered thousands of online and hybrid courses.
Our students and their educations are our primary concern here at MTSU, just as they have always been. The events of the last several months have brought new challenges for them because many were unprepared for online learning. Only a year ago, our students were moving into dorm rooms, attending college events, and looking forward to learning and connecting with our amazing faculty.
This Zombie Apocalypse has changed their experience as well, and while many students
are able to adapt and succeed, some face additional challenges. Our students with
learning differences require accessible instruction to participate equally with other
students, without drawing attention to their unique qualities. In addition, creating
accessible content and instruction benefits all students, not just those who require
As we prepare for a new semester and new students, we can all reconsider course design and instructional practices, remembering these tips:
- Utilize tools in Desire2Learn Brightspace to create a clear course structure—one that’s easy to follow. Clear, consistent organization helps all students understand the expectations and navigate through the course.
- Provide multiple paths to learning. A great course incorporates readings, video, audio, lectures, graphics, and interactive learning components. Be sure to provide text-based alternatives as well.
- Be flexible. Students may need additional time to complete a reading or assignment, or require the use of a special device; this can be challenging with many libraries and organizations operating at reduced capacity.
Our Desire2Learn Brightspace conforms to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
(WCAG) 2.1 Level AA standards and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, so well-organized
course content should be easily accessed by students. However, because many courses
require access to third-party content or applications, students may still require
additional accommodations. For example, many instructors are using Panopto to record
lecture or classroom videos. Others may use Zoom to host classroom meetings or groups,
or deliver instructions remotely, and some require the use of Examity or other test-security
applications. If you are using these tools or others in your courses, remember this:
Panopto offers automated captions for videos; instructors must choose to generate and review those captions before publishing for students. Instructions for adding Automatic Speech Recognition captions are found on the Panopto Support site.
Zoom offers an audio transcript option that resembles closed captioning; this is enabled for our MTSU Zoom account. These are also automatically generated and may require review. Zoom also offers a live closed caption option; instructors may choose to designate a transcriber during a Zoom session. Students may also choose to use Google Live Transcribe to have a real-time transcription of the class session.
Examity is currently offered as an option for test security at MTSU; however, it is important to note that this application will not operate correctly on certain devices and, in the past, has shown issues with screen reader software, screen magnifiers, speech-to-text, and text-to-speech applications. If you choose to use Examity to proctor your exams, have the students set up their profile in advance and take the practice exam. Students should confirm any accommodations with instructors in advance and report any irregularities with the practice exam before taking a for-credit exam. Instructors must ensure the accommodations are set in Desire2Learn before entering these in your Examity dashboard.
If you have questions or concerns about accessibility or accommodations in your courses, the Faculty Instructional Technology Center has resources that can help. Contact us at email@example.com or 615-904-8189.
Some information for this column is from "Accessibility in Education," June 29, 2020.
article and more tips at d2l.com/accessibility/.
Cheri Wolfe is ITD instructional technology specialist—accessibility.
What's in a name? Plenty when it comes to MS Teams
Due to the length and inaccuracy of some of the Microsoft Team names, when using the
team creator’s department as the prefix, we have decided to make a change.
Starting now, all new teams created by faculty and staff will be prefixed with MTSU instead of a department. All new student-created teams will be prefixed with MT Student instead of just Student.
This change allows more flexibility with (and shorter!) names for Teams. It also clearly delineates teams created by students.
Changing the Name of Your Team
If you have just started with your team, we recommend a fresh start.
If your team already has content, your first step should be to create a new team. Copy any content from the old team to the new team. When you are comfortable that all content is in the new team, go to Teams on the navigation pane and then click on the ellipsis (…) next to your old team name and Delete the Team. All files, messages, chats, etc. from the old team will be deleted.
If your team is already heavily used, and you prefer not to re-create it, you can change the display name to reflect the new naming convention.
Go to Teams on the navigation pane and then click on the ellipsis (…) next to your team name, Edit the Team and update the Team name and description, and then select Update. It may take some time to take effect. Note: Changing display name does not change the associated SharePoint site name.
If you decide not to do either, the new prefix will be automatically (and permanently) added when a team’s avatar (picture), description, or privacy settings are changed.
Teams training sessions are available on the ITD Microsoft 365 Workshops channel. Live training workshops are regularly scheduled at http://mtsu.edu/workshops.
If the Microsoft Teams software is not already available on your computer, please ask your departmental IT support staff or contact the ITD Help Desk at firstname.lastname@example.org or 615-898-5345 for assistance.
Please also feel free to explore Teams. In Teams, you will see a Go Teams! icon on the Navigation panel for an interactive Q&A on our Teams environment.
Information is also available at the MTSU Teams portal https://www.mtsu.edu/Teams.
Tech Tips & Tricks:
Meet new year organizational goals with these O365 apps
A new year and a new semester have arrived, and whether getting organized was your
resolution or not, check out these tools that may make things easier in the coming
A commonly overlooked tool provided to MTSU students, staff, and faculty is OneNote. OneNote is a powerful note-taking and organizational tool that lets its users open notebooks about different subjects. You can open as many as you want, and those notebooks can be further divided into sections and even subsections of those sections. Think of it as a multi-section spiral notebook or binder.
Users can type directly into the sections of the notebook, copy and paste from other sources, write directly into sections (if you have a device allowing for handwritten input), sketch, insert pictures, and even record voice notes.
OneNote has a virtual version and does download with the rest of the Office Suite when the essential core of Word, PowerPoint, and Excel is installed.
If you save OneNote into your OneDrive, the notes will be available in the virtual environment and the downloaded version once you log in to the notebook. Intergration with OneDrive allows you to have the files anywhere you have internet access, and if you download the product to your computer you will have those notes even if you are offline.
OneNote is easily accessible at https://portal.office.com.
Buried in the grid of All Apps is a gem of a program called Microsoft Lists. Lists allows you to create detailed multiple-step to-do-lists and keep track of what is important. As part of your portal page, Lists can be created with built-in templates or be custom built. Excel spreadsheets can be imported, and it has integration with Microsoft Teams.
Once created, the template of a list can be reused and modified to meet diverse needs. Look for Microsoft Lists by accessing the portal page and clicking on All Apps to see the full array of what the Microsoft 365 account has to offer.
Staying organized is sometimes as much about managing others as managing yourself. You can get your Microsoft accounts contacts list in order by using People.
Access People by logging into your MTSU portal and clicking on All Apps. Once you click on People, your MTSU email account contacts will become available. You can add contacts, edit existing contacts, create email groups and much more with this simple interface.
As you look for ways to get organized in 2021, don’t overlook the valuable free apps that all MTSU students, faculty, and staff have waiting at https://portal.office.com.
As always if you have problems, contact the ITD Help Desk at 615-898-5345.