In 1970 Congress enacted the Newspaper Preservation Act, a law designed to preserve a vigorous press by helping to keep one or both competing newspapers in the same city from going out of business.

The act was passed in response to the Supreme Court decision in Citizen Publishing Co. v. United States (1969), which ruled that a joint operating agreement (JOA) between two competing newspapers in Tucson, Arizona, violatedthe Sherman Antitrust Act. One newspaper was published by the Citizen Publishing Company and the other by the Star Publishing Company, JOAs allow competing papers to share ownership and advertising revenues (the source of most of their profits), but they must maintain separate editorial staffs in order to pro- vide their city with more diverse viewpoints. Seeking to preserve the twenty-one JOAs in existence at the time of the Citizen Publishing decision, the law allowed these agreements to remain in effect as long as only one of the newspapers on its own was “likely to remain or become a financially sound publication.” The law established a somewhat more stringent test for the creation of new JOAs by permitting such agreements only when one of two competing papers was in “probable danger of financial failure.”

In Michigan Citizens for an Independent Press v.Thornburgh (1989), an equally divided Supreme Court issued a brief per curiam opinion affirming such an agreement, approved by then attorney general Edwin Meese III (and defended by the current attorney general, Richard L. Thornburgh), between the Detroit Free Press and the Detroit News. The agreement was unique in that it specified that the papers would issue joint Saturday and Sunday issues, with one paper writing the editorials on Saturday and the other paper writing them on Sunday.

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